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Old 09-25-2013, 04:18 AM
dragoon500ly dragoon500ly is offline
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Default The Republic of Korea Sourcebook

Well, as promised (threatened) here is the 1st draft of the Republic of Korea Sourcebook for Twilight 2000. As always, comments, suggestions and flames are gratefully accepted!


Sources are the usual, The CIA Fact Book-ROK; Military Balance; The Almanac of World Military Power and Wikipedia


Republic of Korea (South)
Area: 38,031 square miles
Population: 39,400,000
Total Armed Forces: 622,000
Crude Steel Production: 2.7 million metric tons
Iron Ore Production: 621,000 metric tons
Fuel Production
Coal: 16.4 million metric tons
Refined Petroleum Products: 18 million metric tons
Electric Power Output: 26.5 billion kwh
Nuclear Power Production: 1,200 megawatts
Merchant Fleet (ships 1,000 tons and over): 241 ships; 2.2 million gross tons
Civil Air Fleet: 17 jet, 11 turboprop transports

Geography

South Korea occupies the southern portion of the*Korean Peninsula, which extends some 1,100*km (680*mi) from the Asian mainland. This mountainous peninsula is flanked by theYellow Sea*to the west, and*Sea of Japan*(East Sea) to the east. Its southern tip lies on the*Korea Strait*and the*East China Sea.

The country, including all its islands, lies between latitudes*33°*and*39°N, and longitudes124°*and*130°E. Its total area is 100,032 square kilometers (38,622.57*sq*mi).

South Korea is divided into four general regions: an eastern region of high mountain ranges and narrow*coastal plains; a western region of broad coastal plains,*river basins, and rolling hills; a southwestern region of mountains and valleys; and a southeastern region dominated by the broad basin of the*Nakdong River.

South Korea's terrain is mostly mountainous, most of which is not*arable.*Lowlands, located primarily in the west and southeast, make up only 30% of the total land area.

Some three thousand islands, mostly small and uninhabited, lie off the western and southern coasts of South Korea.*The largest island, Jeju-do,*is about 100 kilometers (about 60*mi) off the southern coast of South Korea. With an area of 1,845 square kilometers (712*sq*mi). Jeju-do is also the site of South Korea's highest point:*Hallasan, an extinct*volcano, reaches 1,950 meters (6,398*ft)*above sea level. The easternmost islands of South Korea include Ulleungdo and Liancourt Rocks*(Dokdo), while*Marado*and Socotra Rock*are the southernmost islands of South Korea.

Climate
South Korea tends to have a*humid continental climate*and a*humid subtropical climate, and is affected by the*East Asian monsoon, with*precipitation*heavier in summer during a short rainy season called*jangma, which begins at the end of June through the end of July. Winters can be extremely cold with the minimum temperature dropping
below*-20 °C*(-4*°F)*in the inland region of the country: in Seoul, the average January temperature range is -7*to*1*°C (19*to 34*°F), and the average August temperature range is 22*to*30*°C (72*to 86*°F). Winter temperatures are higher along the southern coast and considerably lower in the mountainous interior.*Summers can be uncomfortably hot and humid, with temperatures exceeding*30 °C (86*°F)*in most parts of the country. South Korea has four distinct seasons; spring, summer, autumn and winter. Spring usually lasts from late-March to early- May, summer from mid-May to early-September, autumn from mid-September to early-November, and winter from mid-November to mid-March.

Rainfall is concentrated in the summer months of June through September. The southern coast is subject to late summer*typhoons*that bring strong winds and heavy rains. The average annual precipitation varies from 1,370 millimeters (54*in) in Seoul to 1,470 millimeters (58*in) in Busan (Pusan).

Defense Structure
The Republic of Korea (ROK) has a strong presidential form of government. The ROK president is the constitutional commander of the nation’s armed forces; he also heads the State Council (cabinet) which is the highest administrative organ and includes the minister of national defense.

The president is assisted by the National Security Council, of which he is the chairman and which includes the prime minister, the ministers of national defense, economic planning, foreign affairs, home affairs, and finance and the director of the Central Intelligence Agency. The chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff also participates in NSC meetings. General control over the armed forces is exercised by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, who are administratively responsible to the national defense minister.

Politico-Military Policy
The current primary objective of the Republic of Korea is to maintain its independence in the face of the ever present invasion threat from Communist North Korea. A less realistic goal is to overthrow the North Korean regime, regarded as the illegal occupier of the north, and reunite the Korean peninsula under the South Korean government. The first policy is strongly supported by the United States. The United Nations, which is pledged to defend the ROK from aggression, also supports Korea’s peaceful reunification under UN-supervised free elections.

Any such peaceful reunification seems precluded in the foreseeable future. North Korea’s independence and military strength are supported by both the Soviet Union and the People’s Republic of China. The military establishments of North and South Korea, backed by alliances with the world’s greatest powers, are poised in an uneasy deadlock which neither dares break. High level discussions between representatives of the two Korean governments are not fruitful for a variety of reasons, all rooted in the almost total distrust that each side feels for the other.

Meanwhile, South Korea seeks to increase its military and economic strength and decrease its dependence on the United States. The 1968 North Korean attempt to assassinate the ROK president, the capture of the U.S. intelligence ship Pueblo, the shooting down by North Korean aircraft of a U.S. EC-121 aircraft over international waters on April 15, 1969, caused a rapid modernization of the South Korean and American forces defending the ROK. The ROK also benefited from its contribution of 50,000 troops in Vietnam, which resulted in increased U.S. aid and promises of profitable reconstruction in South Korea.

Military service is compulsory for all physically fit adult males. After completing service (thirty-three months of the army and marines and thirty-six months for the navy and air force), the individual is automatically a member of the reserve force.

Strategic Problems
South Korea’s main strategic vulnerability is the proximity of all ROK targets, including concentrated industries and population centers, to air attacks from North Korea, Communist China and the Soviet Union. The ROK is also vulnerable to ground infiltration or attack from the north. South Korea has taken energetic measures against constant North Korean infiltration and sabotage, including the forming of special counter-insurgency units, intensive coastal patrols and a home guard militia. In view of the strong anticommunism of the majority of South Koreans, and their general support of the ROK government, there is little likelihood of indigenous guerrilla warfare arising, although civil disturbances are not uncommon. With continued U.S. military commitment and the maintenance of a strong ROK defense structure, the chances of an all-out attack from North Korea are slight. Should the Korean War be renewed, there is little chance of either side mounting a quick knockout blow.

The artificial division of the Korean peninsula in 1945 left the South with the agricultural, unindustrialized portion of the country and the less educated and more unskilled part of the population. Movement from rural to urban areas subsequently increased economic problems. In recent years, however, there has been a boom in exports, which has helped to reduce the large gap in balance of payments.

Military Assistance
The ROK military forces are very dependent on U.S. aid. American military assistance from 1946 through 1977 amounted to $4.9 billion. The U.S. has improved the weapons of the ROK armed forces and enlarged and updated the ROK Air Force. The U.S. maintains military advisory groups in Korea which equip and train all four ROK services. Most of South Korea’s military units are under the operational control of the United Nations Command, which is Korea’s senior military headquarters. The UN Commander is also the commanding general of the U.S. Eighth Army

Alliances
The ROK-US alliance, embodied in the Mutual Defense Treaty of November 1954, provides that the parties will consult each other if threatened by external attack. The treaty also states that an armed attack on the Pacific territories controlled by either signatory would be dangerous to the security of the other.

Soviet and U.S. opposition has kept both Koreas out of the United Nations. The ROK is a member of the Asian and Pacific Council (ASPAC), the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and the World Heath Organization (WHO). The ROK is also a founding member of the Asian Nations Anti-Communist League.
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